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Whitmore Schanzenbach, D. (2014)  Does Class Size Matter? National Education Policy Center.

This policy brief summarizes the academic literature on the impact of class size and finds

that class size is an important determinant of a variety of student outcomes, ranging from

test scores to broader life outcomes. Smaller classes are particularly effective at raising

achievement levels of low-income and minority children.



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National Center for Time and Learning (2011). Time Well Spent: Eight Powerful Practices of Successful, Time-Expanding Schools. National Center for Time and Learning.

This report reshapes the field for expanded-time schools by outlining specific practices that can lead to dramatic increases in student achievement and preparation for success in college and the workforce. This resource offers an in-depth examination of thirty expanded-time schools serving high-poverty populations with impressive track records of student success, and demonstrates how these schools leverage their additional time in order to implement other critical reforms.

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Barnett, S., Schulman, K. and Shore, R. (2004). Class Size: What’s the Best Fit?. National Institute for Early Education Research.

This policy brief focuses on reducing class size in preschools but is relevant for a broader education context.  The brief explains for the practitioner or policy maker the research on class size, why smaller classes make a difference, and addresses concerns about costs, benefits, and unintended consequences.


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Haman, E. & Reeves, J. (2008). Accessing High-Quality Instructional Strategies. California Department of Education & University of California, Davis, School of Education.

This document details why the class-size reduction did not increase access to high quality instruction and narrow the achievement gap: increased demand and movement of experienced teachers to wealthier districts.  It also explores the key question when reducing class size: Are experienced, well-trained teachers available or is there time to develop these teachers?