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Britt, M. & Raine, E. (N.D.) Clarence Edwards Middle School: Success Through Transformation. Massachusetts 2020 & the National Center on Time and Learning.

This case study sheds light on how one struggling school that was labeled a failing school became on of the best performing schools in Massachusetts.  Teachers, union leaders, community members, administrators, and parents worked together to change the length of the school day to meet student needs.


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Chan, R. (n.d.) Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Tumbleweed Elementary School. National Center on Time and Learning.

This case study highlights the changes made to turnaround a low performing elementary school in a high poverty area. The 3 main changes: extended learning time for students, additional planning time for teachers, and professional development that focused on collaboration.

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Church, K., Hirsch, E., Sioberg, A. (2012) Improving Teaching and Learning Conditions: Promising Practices from Pittsburgh Schools. The New Teacher Center.

This brief was written by the New Teacher Center to provide schools with some promising strategies from seven schools in Pittsburgh to inform their own school improvement planning. These seven schools successfully addressed time, school leadership, managing student conduct, and teacher leadership with effective strategies.

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National Center for Time and Learning (2011). Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. National Center for Time and Learning.

For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible with federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround strategies, can dramatically improve the performance of even the nation’s most troubled schools. This case study, the first in a new series, takes you inside the transformation of Orchard Gardens.

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National Center for Time and Learning (2011). Time Well Spent: Eight Powerful Practices of Successful, Time-Expanding Schools. National Center for Time and Learning.

This report reshapes the field for expanded-time schools by outlining specific practices that can lead to dramatic increases in student achievement and preparation for success in college and the workforce. This resource offers an in-depth examination of thirty expanded-time schools serving high-poverty populations with impressive track records of student success, and demonstrates how these schools leverage their additional time in order to implement other critical reforms.

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Banicky, L. A. and Janicki, H. L. (2006). Maximizing Instructional Time: Identifying Impediments and Strategies. Virginia Beach City Public Schools.

This document details the survey results and detailed recommendations of the Virginia Beach Public Schools on maximizing instructional time in their district.  It is a very useful case study for how to tangibly address time concerns.

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American Association of School Librarians, International Reading Association, National Association of Secondary School Principals, National Council for Geographic Education, National Council for the Social Studies, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, National Education Association, National Geographic Education Foundation, National Science Teachers Association, (2011). Making Every Moment Count: Maximizing Quality Instructional Time. International Reading Association.

Position Statements from nine different education advocacy organizations on maximizing quality instructional time.  The position statement of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (pp. 5-10) provides many great questions that schools must ask themselves about the use of time while also providing practices to creatively use existing time.

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Silva, E. (2007). On the Clock: Rethinking the Way Schools Use Time. Education Sector.

This policy brief describes research that suggests that improving the quality of instructional time is at least as important at increasing the quantity of time in school.  This brief is focused more on policy makers to provide them with an understanding of the educational and political complexities of extending the school year.