Burkhauser, Susan (2016) How Much Do School Principals Matter When It Comes to Teacher Working Conditions? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis.

This report studied teacher perceptions of working conditions as influenced by principals to see how it effects retention. Based on four areas of working conditions (teacher time use, physical environment, teacher empowerment/school leadership, professional development), the study found that principles enacting positive working condition policies can play a role in whether teachers remain in their schools.

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Britt, M. & Raine, E. (N.D.) Clarence Edwards Middle School: Success Through Transformation. Massachusetts 2020 & the National Center on Time and Learning.

This case study sheds light on how one struggling school that was labeled a failing school became on of the best performing schools in Massachusetts.  Teachers, union leaders, community members, administrators, and parents worked together to change the length of the school day to meet student needs.


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Chan, R. (n.d.) Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Tumbleweed Elementary School. National Center on Time and Learning.

This case study highlights the changes made to turnaround a low performing elementary school in a high poverty area. The 3 main changes: extended learning time for students, additional planning time for teachers, and professional development that focused on collaboration.

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Kaplan, C., Chan, R., Farbman, D., Novoryta, A. (n.d.) Time for Teachers: Leveraging Expanded Time to Strengthen Instruction and Empower Teachers.  The National Center on Time and Learning.

This report/case study explores six specific practices that highly effective schools utilize.  Practices explored in this report include: collaborative planning, embedded professional development, summer trainings, data analysis, coaching, and peer observation.

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National Center for Time and Learning (2011). Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. National Center for Time and Learning.

For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible with federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround strategies, can dramatically improve the performance of even the nation’s most troubled schools. This case study, the first in a new series, takes you inside the transformation of Orchard Gardens.